FreeBSD Wifi on a BCM4328 Wireless Card


Notes about configuring a wifi wireless network on FreeBSD 12.1, using an old laptop with an unsupported wireless card. Lots of forums said that the card is not supported and that it could not be done. But I refused to believe it, and this is a testimony to the resilience of FreeBSD.

    OS: FreeBSD 12.1-RELEASE-p10
    Laptop: Dell Inspiron 1525 (circa 2007)
    Memory: 4GB
    Wireless Card: 802.11g Broadcom BCM4328 SIBA bus BCM4312 rev 15

The history: while running FreeBSD 12.1 everything worked on my old Dell Inspiron 1525 laptop, except my wifi network. Going through blogs I discovered that the wifi card is not supported by generic FreeBSD kernel, so it does not work by default; and requires special tweaking. There’s no official guide for this wireless card. Tried many different recommendations from forum postings. Below is what what worked for me. There may be better ways; but if so then please comment.

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386BSD 1.0 Running on Qemu

DICLAIMER: This software is a component of “386BSD” developed by William F. Jolitz, TeleMuse.

Please review the full COPYRIGHT NOTICE before continuing.

With Qemu I was able to install and run 386BSD 1.0 Jolix (circa 1989-1994). It is not for the faint of heart. The public downloaded zip file came with no floppies, no CDROM, no installer; only the OS binaries. I had to figure out many things by trial and error, rinse and repeate: the best hard drive image format, dumping the OS binaries remotely, labeling the bootstrap, and fine tuning the startup procedures. Many undocumented steps were involved. I will possibly work on the step-by-step instructions once I am able to re-compile and figure out a stable running install.

386BSD is a historical and legendary operating system, because it is the first Unix that was ported to the Intel 386 CPU beginning in 1989. This preliminary version paved the way for all the other popular Unix versions in actuality, including FreeBSD, NetBSD and the like. This release, together with Minix, is part of the foundations of the modern Unix and Linux for the 386; it is a great academic point of reference for operating system porting and development today, especially for the x86 personal computer architecture; and TCP/IP networking, which also originated with the earlier 4.2BSD Unix.


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Unix BSD/OS 4.3 Install on Qemu 386


A practical approach for the Qemu 386 install of the operating system from Berkeley Software Design BSD/OS 4.3. Installing and running a vintage-like Unix system is a great point of reference concerning the study and appreciation of operating systems. BSD/OS 3.x and 5.x also install in a very similar way. The audience is experienced Unix and Linux administrators.


The copyright declaration as seen inside the mounted ISO download:


BSD/OS Release 4.3
Copyright 2001 Wind River Systems, Inc.
Copyright 1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001
	Berkeley Software Design, Inc.

Portions Copyright by other entities, see individual modules for details.

Use of this software is governed by the Wind River Systems, Inc.
Software License.

If you do not accept the terms of this license, immediately return the
distribution to the place of purchase for a full refund. Further
use of the software will be considered to be acceptance of the terms
of the license.


Download 4.3BSD [612MB]:

$ mkidr -p /u1/qemu/4.3bsd
$ cd /u1/qemu/4.3bsd
$ wget

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Verify OpenSSL TLS 1.2

In an effort to combat cyber crime, major tech companies are advocating encryption for the entire Internet through the free certificate service called “Let’s Encrypt”; meaning that in the not so distant future the following will block public web pages from running browsers:

    * Web paged running on http port 80
    * Web pages with self-signed certificates
    * Web pages with weak encryption
    * Web pages without TLS 1.2 certified encryption
    * Web pages still encrypting with old SSL3

Below find some examples on how to quickly test if your site complies with OpenSSL TLS 1.2.

TLS is supported on OpenSSL 1.0.1 or above. Verify your version:

~$ openssl version
OpenSSL 1.1.1d  10 Sep 2019

Verify a TLS 1.2 enabled website by querying its certificate and spotting its cipher at the bottom. If it returns error handshake messages and no cipher, then it probably does not support TLS 1.2. It should return something like this:

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Apache SSL TLS Certificate Creation Script


Brief notes on how to create an Apache OpenSSL certificate using a bash script under Debian 10. A website that is not encrypted can become a threat to visitors, and often many providers block websites that are not SSL/TLS enabled. The audience is experienced Linux administrators.


    * Root CA certificate = the main self-signed certificate from the Root certificate authority that signs all other certificates or intermediate certificates.
    * Intermediate CA certificate = a certificate created by an intermediate certificate authority (CA), signed by the Root CA.
    * CA Bundle certificate = the merge of Root CA certificate an the Intermadiate CA certificate, valid as a root certificate.
    * Certificate = the certificate received and signed by the Intermediate CA certificate.
    * Certificate Chain = the end certificate, along with the CA Bundle certificate.
    * The intermediate method has more security, so that intrusion of one intermediate certificate authority does not affect the entire root.

The Script

The OpenSSL script below is simple; the variables need to be modified inside. It creates the following (4) four files:

    * Raw private key.
    * RSA private key.
    * CSR, certificate signing request.
    * Self-signed certificate, for testing.

Creating the private key in at least two formats seems like a good idea. Always keep private keys truly private and secure.

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